Insect Wings

Data on insect wing morphology derived from the following sources:

Andersen, N., Cheng, L. 2004. The marine insect Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae): Biology, adaptations, distribution, and phylogeny. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 42:119–180. DOI: 10.1201/9780203507810.ch5

Ball, E. D. and Hartzell A. 1922. Review of the Desert Leafhoppers of the Orgerini (Rhynchota Fulgoridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 15(2):137-152. DOI:10.1093/aesa/15.2.137

Bickel, D. J. 2006. Papallacta (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a New Stenopterous Genus from the Páramo of Ecuador. Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie 149(2):209–13. DOI: 10.1163/22119434-900000201.

Braendle, C., Davis, G., Brisson, J. et al. 2006. Wing dimorphism in aphids. Heredity 97:192-199. DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800863

Brothers, D.J., Lelej, A.S. 2017. Phylogeny and higher classification of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) based on morphological reanalyses. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 60:1–97. DOI: 10.3897/jhr.60.20091

Byers, G.V. 1969. Evolution of Wing Reduction in Crane Flies (diptera: Tipulidae). Evolution 23:346–354. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1969.tb03517

Byers, G.W. 1997. Biology of Brachypanorpa (Mecoptera: Panorpodidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 70:313–322.

Cambra T, R.A., A, D.Q. 2007. Chilemutilla, a new genus of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) from Chile, and the description of the first wingless mutillid male from South America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 133:167–180. DOI: 10.3157/0002-8320(2007)133[167:CANGOM]2.0.CO;2

Chen X, Mirab-balou M, Minaei K. 2013. An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran. ZooKeys 317: 27-52. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.317.5447

Cheng, L. 1977. The elusive sea bug Hermatobates (Heteroptera). The Pan-Pacific entomologist 53(2):87--97.

Davis, D.R., Quintero, D.A., Cambra, R.A. and Aiello, A. 2008. Biology of a new Panamanian bagworm moth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) with predatory larvae, and eggs individually wrapped in setal cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 101(4):689-702.

De Jong, H. and Ciliberti, P. 2014. How cold‐adapted flightless flies dispersed over the northern hemisphere: phylogeny and biogeography of the snow fly genus Chionea D alman (D iptera: Limoniidae). Systematic Entomology, 39(3):563-589.

Gnezdilov, Vladimir M. 2012. A New Stenopterous Genus of the Tribe Gaetuliini Fennah (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Tropiduchidae) from Southern Africa - Particular Intercontinental Convergence. AFRICAN INVERTEBRATES 53:8.

Grimaldi, D. & Engel, M.S. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press.

Grimaldi, D. and Underwood, B.A., 1986. Megabraula, a new genus for two new species of Braulidae (Diptera), and a discussion of braulid evolution. Systematic entomology, 11(4):427-438.

Hackman, W. 1966. On wing reduction and loss of wings in Lepidoptera.Notulae Entomologica 46:1–16.

Heppner, J.B., 1991. Brachyptery and aptery in Lepidoptera. Tropical Lepidoptera Research 2:11-40.

Hölldobler, B. & Wilson, E. O. 1990. The Ants. Harvard University Press.

Hopkins H. 2014. A revision of the genus Arenivaga (Rehn) (Blattodea, Corydiidae), with descriptions of new species and key to the males of the genus. ZooKeys 384:1-256. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.384.6197

Lambdin P. 2008. Scale Insects and Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). In: Capinera J.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_4040

Lelej, A.S. and Krombein, K.V. 2001. Review of the Oriental mutillid wasps of the subfamily Ticoplinae (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae). Far Eastern Entomologist 99:1-18.

Lloyd, J. E. 2002. 17 - Louse Flies, Keds, and Related Flies (Hippoboscoidea). Pages 349-362 in Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Gary Mullen & Lance Durden, eds., Academic Press. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012510451-7/50019-0

McCulloch GA, Waters JM. Does wing reduction influence the relationship between altitude and insect body size? A case study using New Zealand's diverse stonefly fauna. Ecology and Evolution. 2018 Jan;8(2):953-960. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3713.

Miller, Kelly B., Cheryl Hayashi, Michael F. Whiting, Gavin J. Svenson, and Janice S. Edgerly. 2012. The Phylogeny and Classification of Embioptera (Insecta). Systematic Entomology 37(3):550–70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00628.x.

Mound L, Nakahara S, Tsuda DM. 2016. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual. ZooKeys 549: 71-126. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.549.6889

Mound, L. & Moritz, G. 2000. Corroboreethrips, a new genus of minute apterous thrips (Insecta : Thysanoptera : Phlaeothripinae) from the bark of Australian Acacia trees. Invertebrate Taxonomy 14:709-716. DOI:10.1071/IT00002

Mound, L.A. 2005. THYSANOPTERA: Diversity and Interactions. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50, 247–269. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ento.49.061802.123318

Nadel, H. 2008. Agaonidae (Hymenoptera). In: Capinera J.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_104

Nakata, S. & Maa, T.C., 1974. A review of the parasitic earwigs (Dermaptera: Arixeniina; Hemimerina). Pacific Insects 16:307-374.

Niitsu, S., Sugawara, H., Hayashi, F. 2017. Evolution of female-specific wingless forms in bagworm moths: Wing reduction in bagworm moths. Evolution & Development 19:9–16. DOI: 10.1111/ede.12213

O’Brien L.B. 2008. Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). In: Capinera J.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_2987

Oswald, J. D. 1996. A New brachypterous Nusalala species from Costa Rica, with comments on the evolution of flightlessness in brown lacewings (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae). Systematic Entomology 21(4):343–52. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1996.tb00603.x.

Peck, S.B. 2006. Distribution and biology of the ectoparasitic beaver beetle Platypsyllus castoris Ritsema in North America (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Platypsyllinae). Insecta Mundi 20:85–94.

Penny, N.D. 1975. Evolution of the Extant Mecoptera. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 48:331–350

Pitkin, L.M. and Sattler, K. 1991. Sattleria: a European genus of brachypterous alpine moths (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Bulletin of the British Museum, Natural History. Entomology 60(2):205-241.

Rindge, F. H. 1974. A revision of the moth genus Animomyia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). American Museum novitates 2554:1-23.

Roff, D.A. 1990. The Evolution of Flightlessness in Insects. Ecological Monographs 60:389–421. DOI: 10.2307/1943013

Roff, Derek A. 1990. The Evolution of Flightlessness in Insects. Ecological Monographs 60(4):389–421. DOI: 10.2307/1943013

Roza, André Silva, & Mermudes, José Ricardo Miras. (2020). A new genus of railroad-worm beetles from the Atlantic Rainforest from Brazil (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 60(spe), e202060(s.i.).10. Epub May 18, 2020. DOI: 10.11606/1807-0205/2020.60.special-issue.10

Schuh, R. T. & Slater, J. A. 1995. The True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Shovkoon, D.F., 2008. On the rediscovery of Ethmia discrepitella (Rebel, 1901) with remarks on brachyptery in females of Ethmia (Ethmiidae). Nota lepidopterologica 31(2):215–221.

Song, H., Béthoux, O., Shin, S. et al. 2020. Phylogenomic analysis sheds light on the evolutionary pathways towards acoustic communication in Orthoptera. Nat Commun 11, 4939. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18739-4

Vickery, V. R. and Sandoval, C. P. 2001. Descriptions of Three New Species of Timema (Phasmatoptera: Timematodea: Timematidae) and Notes on Three Other Species. Journal of Orthoptera Research 10(1):53-61.

Wu C, Liu C-X. 2020. New record of Didymocorypha Wood-Mason (Mantodea, Eremiaphilidae) from China, with description of a new high-altitude wingless mantis species in Asia. ZooKeys 922:51-64. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.922.47987

Yoshizawa, K. and Lienhard, C. 2010. In search of the sister group of the true lice: A systematic review of booklice and their relatives, with an updated checklist of Liposcelididae (Insecta: Psocodea). Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 68(2):181-195.

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Last Updated May 3, 2021, 13:38 (America/New_York)
Created April 29, 2021, 13:57 (America/New_York)